Xuyen Tam Lien has the potential to help treat covid-19

According to the World Health Organization (WHO) covid 19 is the offical name of the acute respiratory infection caused by the corona virus strain. The coronavirus family is also the cause of Middle Eastern respiratory syndromes (MERS), and they can be spread from person to person. Common symptoms of covid 19 infection are fever, cough, sore throat, runny nose, shortness of breath, fatigue, chills, muscle aches, loss of taste and smell, in severe cases making it difficult to breathe , nausea, or diarrhea…

Import mechanism coronavirus into the host cell

Coronaviruses can enter host cells in two ways: (i) Binding to host cells through interaction with host cell receptors; (ii) The virus coats the cell, either at the cytoplasm or through the cytoplasmic pathway and introduces the migratory material into the cell (Figure 1).

First, the spike protein on capsis coat  binds to ACE2 receptor is expressed on the iconic surface of the respiratory tract in a small number of viral mutant protein fields that will be able to bind to the beneficiary NRP1. The spike protein is then analyzed by TMPRSS2 protein and other serine proteases, facilitating the appearance of substances on the skin surface or dermis through the endocervical ball so that the spike protein is CTSL in lysosomes destroyed. Viral RNA released into the host cell via TMPRSS2 or TMPRSS2-mediated endosome release is transcribed as a partial transcript and transcribed in the ER to form a new SARS-CoV-2 virion. Viral nucleocapsids are transcribed from genomic RNA and cytoplasmic N proteins, then spike proteins are synthesized in the medial compartment of the ERGIC (ER endoplasmic reticulum (ER)–Golgi intermediate compartment). Virions are then released from the cell via exocytosis (figure 1) (Murgolo N. et al, 2021; Yang and Shen, 2020). A new study suggests that coronaviruses use the lysosomal exocytosis pathway for extracellular release. The contribution of each pathway in each cell type is highly dependent on protease expression, especially TMPRSS2. When TMPRSS2 (or other serine proteases such as TMPRSS4 or human respiratory trypsin protease [HAT]) is expressed, the early-order pathway is preferred, whereas without these proteases, the virus relies on the pathway. linked to the process of activation and content generation with cathepsin L (CTSL).

Measures to treat diseases caused by corona virus

To date, there is no anti-therapeutic virus specifically for human coronavirus, so the supportive methods are only therapeutic. Invitro research for interferon (IFN) is effectively an anti-coronavirus fraction. IFNs in combination with ribavirin may have more coronavirus activity than single-resistant IFNs. However, clinical efficacy has not been established. Supportive measures including respiratory support such as oxygen, ventilators, ECMO help keep the patient alive as the disease recovers on its own. Serums capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV have been produced and may be the most useful owner to protect healthcare workers. Model cytokines in patients with severe coronavirus and measures of filtration and cytokine adsorption to treat patients were also studied (Hospital for Tropical Diseases). Recently, a number of countries such as China, India, and Thailand have introduced a model of using traditional medicine to support the treatment of covid 19 that uses radial herbal plants to support the treatment of people infected with SARS-CoV-2.

The scientific name of Xuyen Tam Lien is Andrographis paniculata, belonging to Acanthaceae family. Xuyen Tam Lien is an herbal plant that is used in traditional medicine in many countries including Vietnam to treat colds, diarrhea and fever caused by some viral infectious causes (Murugan et al, 2020).

Research by Thisoda et al, (2006) showed that xuyen tam lien contains more than 10 types of flavonoids and 20 types of diterpennoids. In particular, the main active ingredient in the radial plexus is andrographolide, a diterpene lactone belonging to the isoprenoid group with broad-spectrum antiviral properties. Many previous studies have shown that andrographolide and its derivatives are resistant to influenza A (H1N1), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HVC), chikungunya virus (CHV), HIV, and herpes virus. simplex 1 (HSV-1), Epstein-barr virus (EBV) and human papillomavirus (HPV) and several strains of the Orthomyxoviridae, Hepadnaviridae, Flaviviridae, Herpesviridae, Togaviridae, Retroviridae, and Papillomaviridae (Sa-Ngiamsuntorn et al. , 2021).

According to Vietnam CDC, SARS-CoV-2 has a special affinity for ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2) receptors found in cells in the respiratory tract; especially in lung tissue cells. SARS-CoV-2 uses the glycoprotein spikes located in its outer envelope, as the “key” that opens the door to the ACE2 receptors, the “lock” located on the host cell membrane, to get inside. The host cells are lung tissue cells. Upon first entering the host, the S protein binds to its receptor on the surface of the host’s respiratory mucosal membranes. Most coronaviruses use peptidases as their cellular receptors. The next step after entering the host cell is translation of the copied gene from the virion’s RNA gene (a virion is a complete viral particle, consisting of a DNA or RNA genome and covered by a protein capsid). After assembly, virions are transported to the cell surface in vesicles and released by exocytosis (Hospital for Tropical Diseases).

According to the latest study by Sa-Ngiamsuntorn et al., (2021), it was reported that the andrographolide active extract of radial has the ability to resist SARS-CoV-2 when studying the virus by lung epithelial cell model. Caluans-3. Research results show that andrographolide has the ability to inhibit the production of infectious bacteria (Maurya et al., 2020).

The results of the these studies can be applied in further studies to develop products that limit the import of viruses into host cells.


in silico: term in bioinformatics, is a model that predicts results by means of computer simulation.

Nonstructural proteins: is a virological term that is a protein encoded by a virus but that is not part of the viral particle. They usually include various enzymes and transcription factors that viruses use to replicate themselves.

Virion: is a complete viral particle, consisting of a DNA or RNA genome and covered by a protein capsid.

Dẫn nguồn:

  1. Sa-Ngiamsuntorn, K., Suksatu, A., Pewkliang, Y., Thongsri, P., Kanjanasirirat, P., Manopwisedjaroen, S., Charoensutthivarakul, S., et al. (2021). Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Activity of Andrographis paniculata Extract and Its Major Component Andrographolide in Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Cytotoxicity Evaluation in Major Organ Cell Representatives. Journal of natural products84(4), 1261–1270.
  2. Murgolo N, Therien AG, Howell B, Klein D, Koeplinger K, Lieberman LA, et al. (2021) SARS-CoV-2 tropism, entry, replication, and propagation: Considerations for drug discovery and development. PLoS Pathog 17(2): e1009225.
  3. Murugan N. A.; Pandian C. J.; Jeyakanthan J. Computational investigation on Andrographis paniculata phytochemicals to evaluate their potency against SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to known antiviral compounds in drug trials. J. Biomol. Struct. Dyn. 2020, 1–12
  4. Yang N, Shen HM. Targeting the Endocytic Pathway and Autophagy Process as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy in COVID-19. Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(10):1724-1731. doi:10.7150/ijbs.45498. Available from https://www.ijbs.com/v16p1724.htm
  5. Rajesh Kumar M.Daniel A. Gideon, Richard Mariadasse, Vijay Nirusimhan, Sherlin Rosita A.Jesu Castin Edward, Jeyakanthan Jeyaraman, Violet Dhayabaran V.. (2021) In silico evaluation of isatin-based derivatives with RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics 0:0, pages 1-16.
  6. Thisoda P, Rangkadilok N, Pholphana N, Worasuttayangkurn L, Ruchirawat S, Satayavivad J. Inhibitory effect of Andrographis paniculata extract and its active diterpenoids on platelet aggregation. Eur J Pharmacol. 2006 Dec 28;553(1-3):39-45. doi: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.09.052. Epub 2006 Sep 30. PMID: 17081514.
  7. Yang N, Shen HM. Targeting the Endocytic Pathway and Autophagy Process as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy in COVID-19. Int J Biol Sci 2020; 16(10):1724-1731. doi:10.7150/ijbs.45498. Available from https://www.ijbs.com/v16p1724.htm
  8. https://ncov.moh.gov.vn/web/guest/-/6851640-71